What Makes the Best-Tasting Winter Squash and Edible Pumpkins?
A winter squash or edible pumpkin, after cooking, should have a delicious, sweet flavor and smooth, dry texture. The fact that all of our winter squashes have been bred or selected for the best taste is what makes Johnny's varieties really stand out. All too often, a supermarket squash does not achieve that potential, but instead tastes flat, watery, and — to put it frankly — boring.
Dr. Brent Loy, a cucurbit breeder at the University of New Hampshire, describes the problem as "a grower's paradox."
Several factors determine the eating quality of winter squash and pumpkins and, unfortunately, those factors are not always compatible with maximum profits. That's especially true for wholesale growers, who have little incentive to go the extra mile for great-tasting squash. Direct market growers, though, have the opportunity to produce the highest quality squash and then charge a premium price for it.
If growing great-tasting squash and pumpkins is your goal, you will want to read Dr. Loy's recommendations for harvest and postharvest handling to improve eating quality. Here are the basic considerations.
Yield vs. Eating Quality
Good eating quality is determined mainly by the percentage of sugars and starch in the edible portion of the squash.
Dr. Loy explains the two:
Obviously, squash with higher dry matter content is better for flavor, and dry matter content is largely determined by variety. The "grower's paradox" that Dr. Loy refers to is the fact that a higher percentage of dry matter means a lower fresh weight; a variety with an excellent level of dry matter, say 20%, will weigh only half as much as a variety with 10% dry matter. In the wholesale market where growers are usually paid by weight, so heavier is better for income even if not for flavor."A grower interested in marketing the best quality winter squash must often sacrifice fresh weight yield," Dr. Loy writes. "This is less of a problem at a retail market because a grower can highlight a quality product and price accordingly, but with lack of quality control for squash in supermarkets, a wholesale grower has little incentive to plant a variety which has the best eating quality."
Harvest and Storage
Another critical factor in eating quality is maturity of the squash when it is harvested. Most small varieties reach full size by 20 days after fruit set. Accumulation of dry matter and starch content peaks at 30 to 35 days after pollination. However, the fruit is not mature until the seeds are fully developed, which occurs about 55 days after fruit set.
Dr. Loy stresses the importance of maintaining healthy plants until at least 50 days after fruit set because photosynthesis is essential to the development of sugars and dry matter. A squash that is picked too early will continue to develop seeds, but it does so by depleting the dry matter, thereby reducing eating quality.
Although fruit and seed maturity are similar across the three main species of edible winter squashes and pumpkins, harvest and storage recommendations vary by type.
Achieve Peak Flavor
To grow the best-tasting winter squash, look first for varieties renowned for flavor rather than weight. Don't harvest them too early, and keep them in storage long enough for the sugars to reach acceptable levels, but not so long that they begin to deteriorate.
Calculate the scheduling of each type of squash before you decide which to grow, matching peak flavor to the duration of your markets in fall and winter. It would be pointless to have bins full of butternut squash reaching the best eating quality after your markets close. You would be better off growing larger quantities of varieties that reach maximum flavor during your busy selling season.
By following these guidelines, you should be able to produce winter squash and edible pumpkins with excellent eating quality. Once your customers realize how great a winter squash can taste, they will be look forward to buying from you every fall.
Dr. Loy is the breeder of 'Honey Bear' acorn squash and cooperated with Johnny's in the development of 'Racer,' both Johnny's Exclusives. To learn more about eating qualities and the science behind breeding of winter squashes and pumpkins, see:
- Johnny's Winter Squash Storage and Eating Guide, a quick reference chart of optimal curing and storage times.
- Plant Breeding at Johnny's, by Rob Johnston, Jr.
- Maximizing Yield and Eating Quality in Winter Squash , by Dr. Brent Loy (2011).
- Managing Winter Squash for Fruit Quality and Storage , by Dr. Brent Loy (2009).
- Dr. Loy's UNH Bio.